The squarish hole(S) below the gasket....
(didn't the old one have them?)
They connect the sink vent hole to the drain.
They will actually suck in air through the vent,
and 99% of the water/air mixture will go down the drain.
Not to worry, follow the recommendations outlined above by all,
and test the black gasket against the bottom of the sink before
installing to be sure it mates well with the bottom,
i.e. smooth sealing surface...and be sure it's cENTERED in the
hole while snugging it up.
If the bottom edge of the sink is a sharp edge,
you might knock off the edge with a half-round file or such.
I'd smear aa little grease (vaseline) on the beveled surface
and DON'T tighten so far that it deforms like the one you
You're just looking for a little seal there, there is no pressure involved.
You're up late, no?
Just Common Sense......
err....I'm not a Doctor, but I'll take a LOOK ! !